Course Outline - Physics, University Preparation, SPH3U

The course covers the following 5 topics in the approximate time frame as presented:



Unit 1 Forces and Motion 24 hours
Unit 2 Energy, Work and Power 20 hours
Unit 3 Waves and Sound 18 hours
Unit 4 Light and Geometric Optics 18 hours
Unit 5 Electricity And Magnetism 20 hours
Final Assessment Tasks 10 hours



Coded Expectations, Physics, Grade 11, University Preparation, SPH3U





Scientific Investigation Skills



SIS.01 demonstrate an understanding of safety practices by selecting, operating, and storing equipment appropriately, and by acting in accordance with the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) legislation in selecting and applying techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory materials (e.g., check all electrical equipment for damage prior to conducting an experiment);

SIS.02 select appropriate instruments and use them effectively and accurately in collecting observations and data (e.g., collect data accurately using stopwatches, photogates, or data loggers);

SIS.03 demonstrate the skills required to design and carry out experiments related to the topics under study, controlling major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required (e.g., investigate the relationships among force, mass, and acceleration);

SIS.04 locate, select, analyse, and integrate information on topics under study, working independently and as part of a team, and using appropriate library and electronic research tools, including Internet sites;

SIS.05 compile, organize, and interpret data, using appropriate formats and treatments, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and diagrams (e.g., interpret data, using graphs and graphical analysis techniques; explain, using a ray diagram, the operation of an optical instrument);

SIS.06 use appropriate scientific models (theories, laws, explanatory devices) to explain and predict the behaviour of natural phenomena (e.g., use the kinetic molecular theory of matter to explain thermal energy and its transfer [heat]); use ray diagrams to predict the location and nature of images created by lenses);

SIS.07 analyse and synthesize information for the purpose of identifying problems for inquiry, and solve the problems using a variety of problem-solving skills;

SIS.08 select and use appropriate SI units (units of measurement of the Système international d'unités, or International System of Units), and apply unit analysis techniques when solving problems;

SIS.09 select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation (e.g., algebraic equations, vector diagrams, ray diagrams, graphs, graphing programs, spreadsheets) to communicate scientific ideas, plans, and experimental results;

SIS.10 communicate the procedures and results of investigations and research for specific purposes using data tables, laboratory reports, and research papers, and account for discrepancies between theoretical and experimental values with reference to experimental uncertainty;

SIS.11 express the result of any calculation involving experimental data to the appropriate number of decimal places or significant figures;

SIS.12 identify and describe science- and technology-based careers related to the subject area under study (e.g., electrical engineer, computer technologist).





Forces and Motion

Overall Expectations



FMV.01 demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between forces and the acceleration of an object in linear motion;

FMV.02 investigate, through experimentation, the effect of a net force on the linear motion of an object, and analyse the effect in quantitative terms, using graphs, free-body diagrams, and vector diagrams;

FMV.03 describe the contributions of Galileo and Newton to the understanding of dynamics; evaluate and describe technological advances related to motion; and identify the effects of societal influences on transportation and safety issues.



Specific Expectations



Understanding Basic Concepts



FM1.01 - define and describe concepts and units related to force and motion (e.g., vectors, scalars, displacement, uniform motion, instantaneous and average velocity, uniform acceleration, instantaneous and average acceleration, applied force, net force, static friction, kinetic friction, coefficients of friction);

FM1.02 - describe and explain different kinds of motion, and apply quantitatively the relationships among displacement, velocity, and acceleration in specific contexts;

FM1.03 - analyse uniform motion in the horizontal plane in a variety of situations, using vector diagrams;

FM1.04 - identify and describe the fundamental forces of nature;

FM1.05 - analyse and describe the gravitational force acting on an object near, and at a distance from, the surface of the Earth;

FM1.06 - analyse and describe the forces acting on an object, using free-body diagrams, and determine the acceleration of the object;

FM1.07 - state Newton's laws, and apply them to explain the motion of objects in a variety of contexts;

FM1.08 - analyse in quantitative terms, using Newton's laws, the relationships among the net force acting on an object, its mass, and its acceleration.



Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication



FM2.01 - design and carry out an experiment to identify specific variables that affect motion (e.g., conduct an experiment to determine the factors that affect the motion of an object sliding along a surface);

FM2.02 - carry out experiments to verify Newton's second law of motion;

FM2.03 - interpret patterns and trends in data by means of graphs drawn by hand or by computer, and infer or calculate linear and non-linear relationships among variables (e.g., analyse and explain the motion of objects, using displacement-time graphs, velocity-time graphs, and acceleration-time graphs);

FM2.04 - analyse the motion of objects, using vector diagrams, free-body diagrams, uniform acceleration equations, and Newton's laws of motion.



Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment



FM3.01 - explain how the contributions of Galileo and Newton revolutionized the scientific thinking of their time and provided the foundation for understanding the relationship between motion and force;

FM3.02 - evaluate the design of technological solutions to transportation needs and, using scientific principles, explain the way they function (e.g., evaluate the design, and explain the operation of, airbags in cars, tread patterns on car tires, or braking systems);

FM3.03 - analyse and explain the relationship between an understanding of forces and motion and an understanding of political, economic, environmental, and safety issues in the development and use of transportation technologies (including terrestrial and space vehicles) and recreation and sports equipment.





Energy, Work, and Power



Overall Expectations



EWV.01 demonstrate an understanding, in qualitative and quantitative terms, of the concepts of work, energy (kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and thermal energy and its transfer [heat]), energy transformations, efficiency, and power;

EWV.02 design and carry out experiments and solve problems involving energy transformations and the law of conservation of energy;

EWV.03 analyse the costs and benefits of various energy sources and energy-transformation technologies that are used around the world, and explain how the application of scientific principles related to mechanical energy has led to the enhancement of sports and recreational activities.



Specific Expectations



Understanding Basic Concepts



EW1.01 - define and describe the concepts and units related to energy, work, and power (e.g., energy, work, power, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy and its transfer [heat], efficiency);

EW1.02 - identify conditions required for work to be done, and apply quantitatively the relationships among work, force, and displacement along the line of the force;

EW1.03 - analyse, in qualitative and quantitative terms, simple situations involving work, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and thermal energy and its transfer (heat), using the law of conservation of energy;

EW1.04 - apply quantitatively the relationships among power, energy, and time in a variety of contexts;

EW1.05 - analyse, in quantitative terms, the relationships among per-cent efficiency, input energy, and useful output energy for several energy transformations.



Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication



EW2.01 - design and carry out experiments related to energy transformations, identifying and controlling major variables (e.g., design and carry out an experiment to identify the energy transformations of a swinging pendulum, and to verify the law of conservation of energy; design and carry out an experiment to determine the power produced by a student);

EW2.02 - analyse and interpret experimental data or computer simulations involving work, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy and its transfer (heat), and the efficiency of the energy transformation (e.g., experimental data on the motion of a swinging pendulum or a falling or sliding mass in terms of the energy transformations that occur);

EW2.03 - communicate the procedures, data, and conclusions of investigations involving work, mechanical energy, power, thermal energy and its transfer (heat), and the law of conservation of energy, using appropriate means (e.g., oral and written descriptions, numerical and/or graphical analyses, tables, diagrams).



Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment



EW3.01 - analyse, using their own or given criteria, the economic, social, and environmental impact of various energy sources (e.g., wind, tidal flow, falling water, the sun, thermal energy and its transfer [heat]) and energy-transformation technologies (e.g., hydroelectric power plants and energy transformations produced by other renewable sources, fossil fuel, and nuclear power plants) used around the world;

EW3.02 - analyse and explain improvements in sports performance, using principles and concepts related to work, kinetic and potential energy, and the law of conservation of energy (e.g., explain the importance of the initial kinetic energy of a pole vaulter or high jumper).



Waves and Sound



Overall Expectations



WSV.01 demonstrate an understanding of the properties of mechanical waves and sound and the principles underlying the production, transmission, interaction, and reception of mechanical waves and sound;

WSV.02 investigate the properties of mechanical waves and sound through experiments or simulations, and compare predicted results with actual results;

WSV.03 describe and explain ways in which mechanical waves and sound are produced in nature, and evaluate the contributions to entertainment, health, and safety of technologies that make use of mechanical waves and sound.



Specific Expectations



Understanding Basic Concepts



WS1.01 - define and describe the concepts and units related to mechanical waves (e.g., longitudinal wave, transverse wave, cycle, period, frequency, amplitude, phase, wavelength, velocity, superposition, constructive and destructive interference, standing waves, resonance);

WS1.02 - describe and illustrate the properties of transverse and longitudinal waves in different media, and analyse the velocity of waves travelling in those media in quantitative terms;

WS1.03 - compare the speed of sound in different media, and describe the effect of temperature on the speed of sound;

WS1.04 - explain and graphically illustrate the principle of superposition, and identify examples of constructive and destructive interference;

WS1.05 - analyse the components of resonance and identify the conditions required for resonance to occur in vibrating objects and in various media;

WS1.06 - identify the properties of standing waves and, for both mechanical and sound waves, explain the conditions required for standing waves to occur;

WS1.07 - explain the Doppler effect, and predict in qualitative terms the frequency change that will occur in a variety of conditions;

WS1.08 - analyse, in quantitative terms, the conditions needed for resonance in air columns, and explain how resonance is used in a variety of situations (e.g., analyse resonance conditions in air columns in quantitative terms, identify musical instruments using such air columns, and explain how different notes are produced).



Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication



WS2.01 - draw, measure, analyse, and interpret the properties of waves (e.g., reflection, diffraction, and interference, including interference that results in standing waves) during their transmission in a medium and from one medium to another, and during their interaction with matter;

WS2.02 - design and conduct an experiment to determine the speed of waves in a medium, compare theoretical and empirical values, and account for discrepancies;

WS2.03 - analyse, through experimentation, the conditions required to produce resonance in vibrating objects and/or in air columns (e.g., in string instruments, tuning forks, wind instruments), predict the conditions required to produce resonance in specific cases, and determine whether the predictions are correct through experimentation.



Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment



WS3.01 - describe how knowledge of the properties of waves is applied in the design of buildings (e.g., with respect to acoustics) and of various technological devices (e.g., musical instruments, audio-visual and home entertainment equipment), as well as in explanations of how sounds are produced and transmitted in nature, and how they interact with matter in nature (e.g., how organisms produce or receive infrasonic, audible, and ultrasonic sounds);

WS3.02 - evaluate the effectiveness of a technological device related to human perception of sound (e.g., hearing aid, earphones, cell phone), using given criteria;

WS3.03 - identify sources of noise in different environments (e.g., traffic noise in neighbourhoods adjacent to highways), and explain how such noise can be reduced to acceptable levels (e.g., noise can be reduced by the erection of highway noise barriers or the use of protective headphones).



Light and Geometric Optics



Overall Expectations



LGV.01 demonstrate an understanding of the properties of light and the principles underlying the transmission of light through a medium and from one medium to another;

LGV.02 investigate the properties of light through experimentation, and illustrate and predict the behaviour of light through the use of ray diagrams and algebraic equations;

LGV.03 evaluate the contributions to such areas as entertainment, communications, and health made by the development of optical devices and other technologies designed to make use of light.



Specific Expectations



Understanding Basic Concepts



LG1.01 - define and describe concepts and units related to light (e.g., reflection, refraction, partial reflection and refraction, index of refraction, total internal reflection, critical angle, focal point, image);

LG1.02 - describe the scientific model for light and use it to explain optical effects that occur as natural phenomena (e.g., apparent depth, shimmering, mirage, rainbow);

LG1.03 - predict, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another, using Snell's law;

LG1.04 - explain the conditions required for total internal reflection, using light-ray diagrams, and analyse and describe situations in which these conditions occur;

LG1.05 - describe and explain, with the aid of light-ray diagrams, the characteristics and positions of the images formed by lenses;

LG1.06 - describe the effects of converging and diverging lenses on light, and explain why each type of lens is used in specific optical devices;

LG1.07 - analyse, in quantitative terms, the characteristics and positions of images formed by lenses.



Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication



LG2.01 - demonstrate and illustrate, using light-ray diagrams, the refraction, partial refraction and reflection, critical angle, and total internal reflection of light at the interface of a variety of media;

LG2.02 - carry out an experiment to verify Snell's law;

LG2.03 - predict, using ray diagrams and algebraic equations, the image position and characteristics of a converging lens, and verify the predictions through experimentation;

LG2.04 - carry out experiments involving the transmission of light, compare theoretical predictions and empirical evidence, and account for discrepancies (e.g., given the index of refraction, predict and verify the critical angle of incidence of a substance; given the focal length of a lens, predict and verify the position and characteristics of an image);

LG2.05 - construct, test, and refine a prototype of an optical device (e.g., construct at least one of the following: telescope, microscope, binoculars, periscope, device producing a mirage or a shimmering effect).



Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment



LG3.01 - describe how images are produced and reproduced for the purposes of entertainment and culture (e.g., in movie theatres, in audio-visual and home entertainment equipment, in optical illusions);

LG3.02 - evaluate, using given criteria, the effectiveness of a technological device or procedure related to human perception of light (e.g., eyeglasses, contact lenses, virtual reality "glasses", infra-red or low light vision sensors, laser surgery);

LG3.03 - analyse, describe, and explain optical effects that are produced by technological devices (e.g., periscopes, binoculars, optical fibres, retro-reflectors, cameras, telescopes, microscopes, overhead projectors).



Electricity and Magnetism



Overall Expectations



EMV.01 demonstrate an understanding of the properties, physical quantities, principles, and laws related to electricity, magnetic fields, and electromagnetic induction;

EMV.02 carry out experiments or simulations, and construct a prototype device, to demonstrate characteristic properties of magnetic fields and electromagnetic induction;

EMV.03 identify and describe examples of domestic and industrial technologies that were developed on the basis of the scientific understanding of magnetic fields.



Specific Expectations



Understanding Basic Concepts



EM1.01 - define and describe the concepts and units related to electricity and magnetism (e.g., electric charge, electric current, electric potential, electron flow, magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, energy, power, kilowatt-hour);

EM1.02 - describe the two conventions used to denote the direction of movement of electric charge in an electric circuit (i.e., electric current [movement of positive charge] and electron flow [movement of negative charge]), recognizing that electric current is the preferred convention;

EM1.03 - describe the properties, including the three-dimensional nature, of magnetic fields;

EM1.04 - describe and illustrate the magnetic field produced by an electric current in a long straight conductor and in a solenoid;

EM1.05 - analyse and predict, by applying the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field produced when electric current flows through a long straight conductor and through a solenoid;

EM1.06 - state the motor principle, explain the factors that affect the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field, and, using the right-hand rule, illustrate the resulting motion of the conductor;

EM1.07 - analyse and describe electromagnetic induction in qualitative terms, and apply Lenz's law to explain, predict, and illustrate the direction of the electric current induced by a changing magnetic field, using the right-hand rule;

EM1.08 - compare direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) in qualitative terms, and explain the importance of alternating current in the transmission of electrical energy;

EM1.09 - explain, in terms of the interaction of electricity and magnetism, and analyse in quantitative terms, the operation of transformers (e.g., describe the basic parts and the operation of step-up and step-down transformers; solve problems involving energy, power, potential difference, current, and the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils of a transformer).



Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication



EM2.01 - conduct an experiment to identify the properties of magnetic fields (e.g., use magnetic compasses and iron filings to identify the properties of magnetic fields), and describe the properties that they find;

EM2.02 - interpret and illustrate, on the basis of experimental data, the magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a long straight conductor and in a coil;

EM2.03 - conduct an experiment to identify the factors that affect the magnitude and direction of the electric current induced by a changing magnetic field;

EM2.04 - construct, test, and refine a prototype of a device that operates using the principles of electromagnetism (e.g., construct an operating prototype of one of the following devices: electric bell, loudspeaker, ammeter, electric motor, electric generator).



Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment



EM3.01 - analyse and describe the operation of industrial and domestic technological systems based on principles related to magnetic fields (e.g., electric motors, electric generators, components in home entertainment systems, computers, doorbells, telephones, credit cards);

EM3.02 - describe the historical development of technologies related to magnetic fields (e.g., electric motors and generators, cathode ray [TV] tubes, medical equipment, loudspeakers, magnetic information storage).